You are currently viewing What is Endometriosis? Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis &Treatments

Endometriosis is a gynecological condition characterized by the growth of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus. It affects around 10-15 % of reproductive-aged women and is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain, infertility and other gynecological problems. Overall, endometriosis is a complex and challenging condition that affects many women.

March is recognized as Endometriosis Month, which serves as a reminder of the significant impact that endometriosis can have on the lives of women. This month provides an opportunity to raise awareness about the condition, educate women about the symptoms and treatments, and promote support for those who are living with endometriosis. While there is no cure for endometriosis, there are several treatments available that can help manage the symptoms and improve fertility.

Thus, in this article, we will explore the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of endometriosis, as well as its relationship with laparoscopy.

What is Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a condition in which the cells which normally are present in lining of the uterus- endometrium, grow outside of the uterus. The most common sites of endometriosis are the ovaries, fallopian tubes and the peritoneum, which is the lining of the pelvic cavity. In rare cases, endometriosis can also occur outside of the pelvic region, such as in the lungs or the brain.

Endometriosis Symptoms

What are the first signs of endometriosis? Or majorly what are the symptoms of endometriosis?

 The most common symptoms of endometriosis are as under

  • Chronic pelvic pain, which may be severe and debilitating- which most commonly occurs during menses or just before it
  • Painful menstrual cramps
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding, such as heavy or irregular periods
  • Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
  • Women experience painful bowel movements or/ as well as urination during menstrual cycle
  • Fatigue, bloating and other gastrointestinal symptoms

What Causes Endometriosis?

The exact causes of endometriosis are not fully understood, but several theories have been proposed. Some of the major ones include:

1. Retrograde menstruation

 This theory suggests that some of the menstrual blood flows backward through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity, where it can implant and grow as endometrial tissue.

2. Transformation of peritoneal cells

Some researchers believe that the cells lining the pelvic cavity can transform into endometrial-like tissue under certain conditions.

3. Embryonic Cell Transformation

 This theory suggests that endometriosis arises from the remnants of embryonic tissue that can become endometrial tissue outside of the uterus.

4. Surgical Scar Implantation

 This theory suggests that endometrial tissue can implant and grow in surgical scars after procedures such as a cesarean section or a hysterectomy.

5. Endometrial Cell transport

 Some researchers believe that endometrial cells can travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system and implant in other parts of the body.

6. Immune System Disorder

 It is believed that a faulty immune system might fail to eliminate endometrial cells that have moved out of the uterus.

Endometriosis diagnosis

How to do Endometriosis Diagnosis?

Diagnosing endometriosis can be challenging, as the symptoms can vary widely among women and can overlap with other gynecological conditions. Earlier the most reliable way towards endometriosis diagnosis was through laparoscopy, a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which a small camera is inserted into the abdomen to view the pelvic organs. During laparoscopy, the surgeon can visualize the fibrotic endometrial tissue in the pelvis and other places and biopsy  of it can be taken to confirm. Now with advancement in the technology a pre-operative Ultrasound or a MRI by a trained radiologist in Endometriosis imaging also gives us a detailed picture.

What are Treatments of Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a complex and challenging condition that can cause significant pain and fertility problems for many women. While there is no cure for endometriosis, there are several options available towards endometriosis diagnosis as well as treatments available that can help manage the symptoms and improve fertility.

Laparoscopy is an important tool for treatment. With the right treatment from an endometriosis specialist, women can lead a happy, healthy and pain-free life.

1. Pain medication

Among the most common endometriosis treatments – over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen can help alleviate menstrual cramps and pelvic pain.

2. Hormonal therapy

 Birth control pills, patches, and other hormonal therapies can help regulate the menstrual cycle and reduce the growth of endometrial tissue.

3. Surgery

The most effective treatment for endometriosis include laparoscopic surgery that can be used to remove fibrotic endometrial tissue, adhesions, and ovarian cysts and re-create a normal pelvic anatomy with healthy tissues which can help alleviate pain and improve fertility.

4. Assisted reproductive technologies

In vitro fertilization (IVF) and other fertility treatments can help women with endometriosis become pregnant. This is again the most effective endometriosis treatment towards healing yourself as well as having a child, despite the odds.

Endometriosis Treatment

How to prevent endometriosis?

Unfortunately, there is no surefire way to prevent endometriosis. However, there are some lifestyle changes that may help reduce the risk of developing the condition or the cautions that you can take to prevent endometriosis:

  • Regular exercise: Regular exercise can help reduce inflammation and improve overall health, which may help prevent endometriosis.
  • Healthy diet: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein may help reduce inflammation and promote overall health.
  • Avoiding environmental toxins: Exposure to environmental toxins such as dioxins and PCBs may increase the risk of endometriosis. Avoiding products that contain these toxins, such as some types of plastics, can help reduce the risk.


By increasing awareness and understanding of endometriosis, we can help ensure that women receive the care and support they need to manage their symptoms and maintain their overall health and wellbeing. So, if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of endometriosis, don’t hesitate to seek help from a healthcare professional. Together, we can work towards a future where endometriosis no longer poses a significant threat to the health and happiness of women everywhere. If you are experiencing symptoms of endometriosis, it is important to talk to your healthcare provider to get an accurate diagnosis and develop a treatment plan.


Unfortunately, there is currently no cure for endometriosis. However, there are several treatments available that can help manage the symptoms, reduce the disease load and improve fertility.

If left untreated, endometriosis can cause chronic pain, infertility, and other gynecological problems. In rare cases, it can also lead to the development of ovarian cancer.

Endometriosis can cause significant pain and affect the quality of life as well as cause fertility problems for many women, so it should be taken seriously. However, it is not usually life-threatening and can be managed with appropriate treatment. It is important to talk to your healthcare provider if you are experiencing symptoms of endometriosis.

Dr Atishay Jain

Dr. Atishay Jain is an Obstetrician and Gynecologist, fertility specialist and advanced Gynae Laparoscopic Surgeon with an experience of performing more than 1000 advanced laparoscopic surgeries. He is the co-director of Asian Institute of infertility management and Asian women’s center.